A rendering of: (1) Hebrew and Aramaic hekal (a loan word from Sumero-Akkadiah ekallu, borrowed from the Sumerian E-GAL, "palace," "temple," literally "great house"), used also of the tabernacle at Shiloh (1 Sa 1:9; 3:3), and of God's heavenly abode (2 Chr 35:20), also for a pagan temple (1 Chr 10:10). In many passages where bayith is rendered "house," reference is to a temple, either that of a pagan deity (Jgs 9:46; 2 Ki 10:21; etc.) or the Temple of God in Jerusalem (1 Ki 6:2-10; etc.). A temple was considered primarily a dwelling place of the deity, and only secondarily a place of worship. (3) Gr. hieron (Mt 4:5; 12:5, 6; etc.). (4) Gr. naos (ch 23:16; etc.). Strictly speaking, hieron applies to the whole Temple complex, with all its auxiliary buildings and courts, whereas naos designates the sacred shrine or the Temple building, consisting of the "holy place" and the "most holy [place]."

All ancient nations built temples to their gods. Some of them were elaborate structures, covering many acres of land, and consisted of magnificent buildings and courts. One of the largest well-preserved ruined temples is the great temple of Amon at Thebes in Upper Egypt . In the region of Palestine no temple ruins from pre-Roman times have survived above ground, but several earlier ones have been excavated. They reveal that most of the pre-Israelite temples in Canaan consisted of 3 main rooms: (1) an anteroom through which the worshiper or priest had to pass before he could enter; (2) the sanctuary in which he presented his sacrifices, prayed, or performed other religious duties; (3) beyond this, usually on a raised level, the most holy place containing a pedestal on which the image of the god stood. The temple of Dagon at Ashdod, to which the Philistines took the captured ark of God (1 Sa 5:2-4), was probably a structure like those excavated at Beth-shean. The temple of the god El-berith (KJV "Berith") at Shechem (Jgs 9:46), which has been excavated, was similar in layout to the temples already described, and the temple of Baal at Samaria (2 Ki 10:21), may not have differed from those excavated at various places in Palestine and Syria.

Although the OT says very little about the pagan temples of Canaan, it gives detailed descriptions of the Temple of Solomon and of the ideal temple of Ezekiel's vision, and also some information about Zerubbabel's Temple. Herod's Temple, the scene of Christ's ministry, is described in detail in the writings of Josephus and in the Mishnah.

I.The Temple of Solomon. David had originally planned to build the Temple at Jerusalem (2 Sa 7:1-3), and when he was not permitted to erect it (vs. 5, 6), he amassed during his lifetime a tremendous amount of building material and precious metal (1 Chr 22:2-16) which, together with detailed plans (ch 28:11, 12), he gave to his son Solomon, charging him with carrying out the project. David had already bought the Temple site, the threshing floor of Araunah (1 Chr 21:25 to 22:1), on what had formerly been called Mount Moriah, the scene of the offering of Isaac.

Although the OT gives a detailed description of the Temple building and its furniture, some terms are obscure, and consequently, most conjectural reconstructions made before the accumulation of archaeological evidence concerning the building methods, techniques, and architectural details of Solomon's time are incorrect. Much more is now known, but uncertainties with regard to some of the details remain, as the following discussion will show.

The north-eastern hill of Jerusalem, on which Solomon erected the Temple and most probably the palace structures, is irregularly shaped; and doubtless a great deal of time, expense, and effort was expended to provide first a level platform on which the various buildings could be erected. This accounts to some extent for the long span of time—20 years (1 Ki 9:10)—required to build the Temple and the palaces. Examples of such artificial platforms are plentiful in the Near East, the most famous of which are those of Persepolis and Pasargadae in Persia, and of the great Sun temple at Baalbek in the Lebanon. In fact, the present platform of the Temple area at Jerusalem, now a Moslem sacred precinct , gives a good idea of the platform erected by King Solomon, although the present structure consists of Herodian and later masonry. Some of the subterranean vaults in the present platform structure at Jerusalem are used as cisterns, and Solomon's platform most likely contained similar cisterns for the storage of rain water, for Jerusalem has always suffered from a shortage of water.

The Temple and its auxiliary buildings were erected in 7 years (1 Ki 6:37, 38). Besides the sanctuary structure, the Temple precinct contained 2 courts (2 Ki 23:12): (1) a "great court" (2 Chr 4:9) to which everyone had access, and (2) an "inner court" (1 Ki 6:36)—also called "the court of the priests" (2 Chr 4:9) and the "upper court" (Jer 36:10)—which was mainly the domain of priests and Levites. Nothing is said concerning their size or shape. The Bible mentions a number of gates that seem to have given access to the Temple area, but it does not specify which of them led into the outer court and which from the outer court into the inner one, nor does it give their exact locations. The gates mentioned by name are: (1) the "king's gate" (1 Chr 9:18), on the east side, (2) the "new gate" (Jer 26:10; 36:10), probably on the south side, (3) the upper Benjamin Gate (ch 20:2), probably on the north north side, (4) the "higher gate," built by Jotham (2 Ki 15:35), probably in the north wall and possibly identical with the upper Benjamin Gate (Jer 20:2), (5) another "higher gate" connecting the Temple precinct with the palace area (2 Chr 23:20), hence probably on the south side, and (6) the gate of Shallecheth on the west side (1 Chr 26:16). Nothing is known of the wall of the outer court; it was apparently—in the north and east, at least—the outer wall of the city. The wall of the inner court was lightly built and consisted of 3 courses of stone with 1 course of cedar beams laid in the walls (1 Ki 6:36), an unusual method of building attested in Hittite ruins excavated in northern Syria, and in structures at Megiddo erected in Solomon's time (H. C. Thomson, PEQ 92 [1960], 57-63).

The temple had a length of 60 cu., a width of 20 cu., and a height of 30 cu. These measures most probably apply to the interior. It is not known whether the builders employed the common cu. or the longer royal cu. The building, which faced east, consisted of (1) a vestibule or porch, 20 cu. wide and 10 cu. deep; (2) the "holy place," 20 cu. wide and 40 cu. long; and (3) the "Holy of Holies" or "most holy [place]," which was 20 cu. in each direction, hence a perfect cube (1 Ki 6:2, 3, 16, 17, 20).

The walls were of stone cut to size in quarries (1 Ki 6:7), and the ceiling was of beams and planks of cedar (v 9). The walls were covered with cedarwood, and the floor with cypress wood (v 15). The whole interior was carved with figures of cherubim, palm trees, and flowers, and overlaid with gold (1 Ki 6:18, 20-22, 29, 30, 32, 35; 2 Chr 3:7). Underneath the roof were series of windows with recessed frames (1 Ki 6:4, RSV), perhaps with latticework that gave access to the sunlight.

The partition between the holy place and the Most Holy Place was of cedar boards overlaid with gold, with a door consisting of 2 leaves of olivewood and decorated with cherubim, palm trees, and flowers, and covered with gold (1 Ki 6:31, 32). A gold chain was hung in front of the partition, evidently to support a curtain patterned after that which had been in the tabernacle (1 Ki 6:21; Chr 3:14). It is uncertain whether the Most Holy Place lay on the same level as the holy place, or at an elevation to be reached by a stairway. Some scholars think that the lower height given for the smaller room, 20 cu. against 30 for the holy place, indicates that its floor level was 10 cu. higher, with the same roof level for both , thus following the pattern of temples excavated elsewhere, which frequently show the innermost part of the sanctuary on a higher level than the other rooms. Other scholars, believing that the floors of all rooms lay on the same level and that the part of the roof covering the Most Holy Place lay 10 cu. lower than the rest of the roof, or that there may have been upper chambers between the ceiling of the Most Holy Place and the roof, find in 1 Chr 28:11 and 2 Chr 3:9 some support for such a view.

Against the outside walls of the sanctuary on the north, west, and south were built 3 stories of small chambers that were probably used as offices for administration officials, and as storerooms (1 Ki 6:5-10). Many scholars believe that the front of the Temple had either 2 high monumental towers or a pylonlike entrance. The monumental towers find some basis in Chr 3:4, which speaks of the height of the vestibule, or porch, as 120 cu. If this figure is correct, only high towers can be meant. In front of the Temple stood 2 bronze pillars with richly decorated capitals, each 18 cu. high (1 Ki 7:15-22; 2 Chr 3:15-17). Their names, Boaz and Jachin, may have been the initial words of Hebrew inscriptions carved in the pillars. Archaeological evidence shows such free-standing pillars as a common feature of Phoenician temples.

In the Most Holy Place stood the ark with its lid (called "mercy seat"). This was the original ark made at Mount Sinai under the direction of Moses. It was canopied by the extended wings of 2 large gold-overlaid cherubim that were new products of Solomon's artisans (1 Ki 6:23) 28). In the holy place, but belonging to the inner sanctuary, was the golden altar of incense (1 Ki 6:20, 22; ch 7:48); 10 lampstands instead of the one in the tabernacle (ch 7:49); and "tables" of showbread (1 Chr 28:16; 2 Chr 4:18, 19; 13:11). In the inner court stood the large bronze altar of burnt offering (1 Ki 8:64; 2 Ki 16:14), 4 times the length and width of that which had served in the tabernacle (2 Chr 4:1; cf. Ex 27:1); also the large bronze sea, or tank, standing on the backs of 12 cast-bronze oxen, and 10 movable lavers (1 Ki 7:23-39). See names of specific items.

Solomon's Temple was repaired several times (2 Ki 12:5-14; 2 Ki 22:5-7) and stood for about 400 years. It was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar's army in 586 b.c.: the pillars and the sea were broken up and the bronze taken to Babylon, along with all the other metal vessels (ch 25:9-17).

II. The Temple of Ezekiel. The temple described in Eze 40:1 to 43:27 was seen by the prophet in vision, and it is not clear whether or to what extent Zerubbabel built his Temple according to its plans and specifications, or whether the vision temple merely represented a plan for a temple that was to have served a restored, obedient people—a plan never realised because the people did not meet God's expectations and requirements.

It has been recognised for a long time that in its essential features Ezekiel's temple was patterned like Solomon's Temple, and recently discovered archaeological evidence indicates that Ezekiel's gates, described in great detail, almost exactly matched gates built by Solomon's architects at Megiddo, Hazor, and Gezer . C. G. Howie (BASOR 117 [1950], 13-19) was the first to recognise that the layout and measurements given by Ezekiel for the east gate of his temple in all essential features agreed with a city gate of Megiddo, excavated in the Solomonic level of that city. In 1957 Y. Yadin discovered an identical city gate during the excavations at Hazor in the Solomonic level, which indicated that it had been planned by the same architect who had been responsible for the Megiddo gate. In 1958 Yadin showed that a Solomonic gate of about the same dimensions had been uncovered during excavations of Gezer many years ago, although its true character had not been recognised, because of the imperfect archaeological methods employed at that time (Y. Yadin, IEJ 8 [1958], 80-86; G. E. Wright, BA 21 [1958], 103, 104). This gate, completely excavated by the American Gezer expedition from 1966 to 1969, turned out to be an identical replica of the Solomonic gates of Megiddo and Hazor (W. G. Dever, EAEHL II:436, 437, 441). These discoveries show that the description of either Solomon's Temple or of Ezekiel's ideal structure can be used to clarify structural and architectural details of the other.

Since Ezekiel's temple never existed in reality, only a brief summary of its essential features will be given here. Its main feature is the perfect symmetry prevailing throughout. The whole precinct, 500 cu. square, faces the east. It consists of an outer court surrounded by a wall broken by 3 identical gates, one in the north wall, one in the east wall, and one in the south wall. A number of structures serve as partitions between the outer and inner courts, and 3 gates identical to those already mentioned are located opposite the outer gates and give access to the inner court. In this court stands a large altar of sacrifice, of which exact dimensions are given, and the temple structure itself, built on a raised platform and reached by steps in front of the vestibule. The temple consists of a (presumably towered) vestibule, the holy place, and the Most Holy Place (all having measurements approximately like those given for Solomon's Temple), surrounded by side chambers in 3 stories on the north, west, and south sides of the building. In front of the temple are 2 free-standing pillars.

III. The Temple of Zerubbabel. The postexilic Temple at Jerusalem was built with the permission of Cyrus. According to the royal grant it was to have a breadth of 60 cu. and a height of 60 cu., but its length is not mentioned in the preserved document (Ezr 6:3). The building was begun in the 2nd year after the return of the exiles from Babylon, but the builders encountered so much opposition from enemies in their homeland that the work soon came to a virtual stop and remained interrupted until the reign of Darius I. In the 2nd year of his reign the prophets Haggai and Zechariah encouraged Zerubbabel, the governor, and Joshua, the high priest, to make another effort to rebuild the Temple. They responded, and with the enthusiastic support of the whole nation and the good will of the Persian officials and of the king himself, the new Temple, usually referred to as the Second Temple, was finished, along with its auxiliary structures, in a period of about 41/2 years, from 520 to 515 b.c. (Ezr 3:8 to 4:5; 4:24; to 6:15).

The dimensions of this Temple are unknown, although it is reasonable to assume that the general outline of Solomon's Temple was followed. The buildings were less lavishly decorated, and those who had seen the old Temple wept in sorrow over the simpler layout when no more was seen than the foundation stones (Ezr 3:12; cf. Hag 2:3). The fact that it took the Jews about 2 years less time to build the new Temple was due not only to its poorer construction but also to the existence of the old Solomonic platform (see above), large parts of which could probably be utilised after some repair work. Since the building of such a platform must have consumed much time, effort, and money, a rebuilding of the superstructures on the same site could certainly profit from whatever was left of the substructures of the former Temple precincts.

For the construction of the Temple cedarwood was obtained from the Lebanon Mountains (Ezr 3:7), and precious metals for decorations were provided by freewill offerings of the people and the leaders (chs 1:6; 2:68, 69). Many of the vessels of the former Temple, taken to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar's army (ch 1:7-11), were returned by Cyrus to the Jewish officials, and were taken back to Jerusalem. The Temple building was, as before, divided into a holy place and the Holy of Holies, perhaps by a wall as before, but at least by a curtain (1 Macc 1:22). The interior walls were covered with gold.

The Most Holy Place was empty (Tactics Hits. v. 9; Cicero Pro Flack 28), because the ark of God and the cherubim had disappeared at the time of Nebuchadnezzar's conquest of Jerusalem in 586 b.c.. The Jews have preserved a tradition that Jeremiah and some of his followers had hidden the ark in a cave. After their return from the Exile all efforts to recover this sacred emblem were fruitless, and to the present day have been without success. In the holy place stood the golden altar of incense, one lampstand, and one table of showbread (1 Macc 1:21, 22). Various passages indicate that offices and miscellaneous storerooms were attached to the Temple building, or were situated in buildings surrounding the courts (Ezr 10:6; Neh 10:37-39; Neh 12:44; Neh 13:4; 1 Macc 4:38). Mention is also made of the courts of the Temple (Neh 8:16; Neh 13:7; Jos. Ant. xiv. 16. 2). In the inner court stood, as before, an altar of sacrifice (Ezr 7:17), this time built of stone and not of bronze like that in Solomon's Temple (1 Macc 4:44-47). Also in this court was a "sea," probably of bronze (Ecclus 50:3). Access to the Temple area was obtained through gates (Neh 6:10; 1 Macc 4:38) whose number and location are not known.

It appears that the religious rites of the Mosaic law were performed uninterruptedly during the Persian period and also during the 1st 150 years of the Hellenistic domination of Palestine. Alexander the Great is said to have visited the Temple (Jos. Ant. xi. 8. 5), as did at least 2 of the Ptolemies (Ptolemy III, Jos. Against Apion ii. 48; Ptolemy IV, 3 Macc 1:9, 10). Antiochus IV Epiphanes desecrated the Temple in 168 b.c. by erecting an altar dedicated to Jupiter Olympius in the Temple court and sacrificing swine on it. He stole the sacred furniture from the holy place and removed all Temple treasures (Jos. Ant. xii. 5. 4; 1 Macc 1:21-23). However, the Temple was repaired, refurnished, and rededicated in 165 b.c., after the Maccabean forces took Jerusalem (1 Macc 4:43-59). The Feast of Dedication (Jn 10:22) originated at that time. When Pompey conquered Jerusalem in 63 b.c. the Temple was spared any damage (Jos. Ant. xiv. 4. 4), but it was later pillaged by Crassus (ibid. 7. 1). It may have suffered some further damage in the conquest of Jerusalem by Herod in 37 b.c. (ibid. 16. 2, 3). By this time the Temple, being now about 500 years old, needed a thorough overhauling or rebuilding, and Herod decided to build a new Temple which would exceed in splendour and beauty every other structure in the country (see Mt 24:1; cf. Lk 21:5).

IV. The Temple of Herod. When Herod announced his intention of building a new Temple, the Jews feared he would tear down the old one and then fail to rebuild it. Consequently, Herod devised a method of reconstruction by which the old was demolished only as the new construction progressed; it appeared at the different stages as if he were doing nothing but repairing the older structures, while in reality a completely new complex of buildings was erected without interrupting the services. He first rebuilt the Temple proper. This work was begun in 20/19 b.c. and lasted 18 months. He had all building material finished to size before it was brought to the Temple area, and employed only priests to work on the inner Temple structure. After that was finished, most of the outer buildings, including the cloisters, were completed during the next 8 years, but the work of decoration and embellishment went on until the procuratorship of Albinus (c. a.d. 62-64), immediately before the outbreak of the Jewish war (Jos. Ant. xv. 11; War v. 5). Since building activities were still going on during Christ's ministry, it is understandable that the Jews said the Temple had been in building for 46 years (Jn 2:20). It was this Temple of Herod in which Jesus was dedicated as an infant, in whose halls He met the teachers of the Law as a boy of 12 years, and from whose outer court He drove away the moneychangers. Its halls saw Him, and later His apostles, teach and preach, and at one of its beautifully decorated gates Peter and John healed a crippled man. The whole Temple with all its buildings was destroyed by fire during the capture of Jerusalem by the forces of Titus in a.d. 70. Although strict orders had been given to spare it, a soldier threw a torch in the sanctuary and set it on fire. Thus was destroyed one of the most beautiful buildings of its time (Jos. War vi. 4).

Although the Temple built by Herod the Great was actually a new structure, the Jews always referred to it as still the Second Temple, considering his work no more than a repair and remodelling. Because of the Jews' hatred for him, the orthodox Jewish writings, like the Mishnah, which gives detailed descriptions of this Temple, never mention the name of its builder. From the descriptions of Josephus (Ant. xv. 11; War v. 5) and of the Mishnah (Middoth,) and from the archaeological evidence of the present site, a fairly good idea of the Temple precinct of Herod can be obtained. The following description is based on these sources .

The old Temple area was enlarged to twice its former size, including also the palace grounds of Solomon's time. Archaeological investigations show that the present Moslem enclosure, the Haram esh-SheréÆf, almost exactly covers Herod's Temple area, and large parts of the present walls rest on foundations or wall stumps of Herod's time. This outer wall surrounded the Court of the Gentiles, to which everyone had access. Covered colonnades, usually called porches (porticoes, cloisters), ran around the inner portion of the enclosure wall. They were constructed after the pattern of the Greek stoae, colonnaded halls that flanked the agora (market place) of every Greek city. The southern portico, called the Royal Porch, had 162 gigantic columns arranged in 4 rows, thus forming 3 corridors—the middle one being higher and wider than those on each side. All other porticoes surrounding the outer court had 3 rows of columns. The southern portion of the eastern portico was called Solomon's Porch (Jn 10:23; Acts 3:11; 5:12).

Eight gates gave access to this outer court. One, the Shushan Gate, lay on the east side, at the site of the present Golden Gate, and one in the north. The 2 southern gates, called Huldah gates, gave access to the Temple court from the lower part of the city through stairways that ended inside the court. These two gates, still visible in the preserved wall portions, show that one had 2 doors and the other 3 doors. The western wall was broken by 4 main gates and one small entrance, of which the southernmost was a gate reached by means of an L-shaped stairway and a bridge (Robinson's Arch), which crossed the street that ran at the bottom of the western wall in the Tyropoeon Valley, which flanked the western wall. This gate with its stairway and bridge, which has been fully uncovered in the excavations of B. Mazar from 1968 to 1977, is not mentioned in ancient records. Another gate was reached via a bridge that spanned the valley. The greater part of this bridge, now known as Wilson's Arch, is still preserved, although most of the valley has been filled with debris. Between the south inner gate and the porch of the house there was another small entrance at street level in the Tyropoeon Valley. A stairway from that entrance led to the inside of the court. Not much is known about the 2 other western gates. At the north-western corner were stairways which led up to the Castle, or Barracks, of Antonia, which was located on a rock platform higher than the Temple court. It had been built by John Hyrcanus at the site of the old citadel, called bérah by Nehemiah (ch 2:8). Herod had enlarged it and transformed it into a fortified palace.

In the centre of the whole enclosure was the sacred precinct, on a higher level than the large outer court, reached from the north, east, and south sides by flights of 14 steps each. Outside this terrace was a wall, 3 cu. high, surmounted by pillars, with entrances to the sacred enclosure at 9 places exactly in front of the 9 gates of the inner wall. Warning tablets inscribed in Greek and Latin contained the following text: "No stranger (=non-Jew) is to enter within the balustrade and enclosure around the Temple. Whoever is caught will be responsible to himself for his death, which will ensue." One such tablet with a complete Greek inscription was found by Charles Clermont-Ganneau in 1871; it is now in a museum at Istanbul . Part of a 2nd one, discovered in street-building operations at Jerusalem in 1935, is now in the Jerusalem Archaeological Museum (QDAP 6 [1936], 1-3). The apostle Paul was accused of having brought a Gentile within this wall, and thus of having transgressed this ordinance, when he was arrested in the Temple (Acts 21:28, 29).

Upon the terrace stood the inner wall, 25 cu. high, which separated the inner courts from the outer one, and also the sanctuary proper from the world. Access to the inner courts was obtained through 9 gates, of which one was in the east and 4 each on the north and south sides. Against the inner side of this wall were built storage chambers and offices opening onto colonnades. The eastern portion, or about one third of the whole sacred area, was separated from the rest by a wall. It was the Court of the Women, so called because Jewish women and children had access to this court. The "treasury," a place mentioned as the scene of Christ's teaching in the Temple (Jn 8:20), lay within the Court of the Women. The name is applicable either to the colonnade around the court, in which were located the contribution boxes, called "trumpets" because of their shape, or to those rooms in which gifts and offerings were deposited. One large gate lay between this Court of the Women and the next one, which lay on a higher level. Fifteen steps, semicircular in form, led to this great gate, which was 40 cu. wide and 50 cu. high. It is not certain whether this gate or the one that led into the Court of the Women from the outer court was the Beautiful Gate (Acts 3:2), where Peter healed a crippled beggar.

The western portion of the sacred enclosure contained the Court of the Priests, next to the Temple building. Around it on 3 sides was the Court of Israel, also called Court of, to which all Jewish men had access. The 2 courts were separated from each other by a wall about 1 cu. high. Within the Court of Israel was a series of storage chambers, and also the hall in which the Sanhedrin, or Supreme Court (see Acts 5:21), had its sittings.

The Court of the Priest contained the altar of sacrifice and the "sea" of bronze. Only priests were allowed to enter this court, except that Jews were permitted to enter and come before the altar for the presentation of their offerings. The altar of unhewn stone was, according to the Mishnah, 15 cu. high and 32 cu. square at its base, with a ramp leading up. However, these measures can hardly be correct. It is generally believed that this altar of sacrifice stood at the spot now covered by the Moslem Dome of the Rock, often erroneously called the Mosque of Omar . Underneath this rock is a cave to which access can be gained by means of a stairway. There was a hole through which the priests could drop into the cave the discarded parts of the sacrificial victims, as well as the ashes and bones, which could then be removed from the cave during the night, so that the worshipers in the Temple area would not be offended by the door of this waste material .

Twelve steps led up from the Court of the Priests to the vestibule of the Temple building. This vestibule was 100 cu. high, 100 cu. broad, and 20 cu. deep, containing spiral staircases in its side wings. The monumental portal was 70 cu. high and 25 cu. wide, without doors, so that the great doorway to the sanctuary itself was visible from the outside. This doorway contained 2 golden doors, 55 cu. high and 16 cu. wide, opening into the holy place, which was the same size (40 x 20 cu.) as that of Solomon's Temple, except that it was 60 cu. high (instead of 30). It contained the usual equipment: a golden altar of incense, a table of showbread, and a lampstand. The Most Holy Place, which was empty, was separated from the larger room (according to the Mishnah Yoma 5. 1) by two parallel curtains. The rending of this partition at the death of Christ (Mt 27:51; Heb 6:19; 10:20) gave proof that the shadow service of the sacrificial system had come to an end.

Attached to the north, west, and south sides of the Temple building were side chambers in 3 stories, like those in Solomon's Temple.

Lit.: W. F. Albright, Archaeology and the Religion of Israel (Baltimore, 1953), pp. 142-155; M. Ben-Dov, "Temple of Herod," IDBS, pp. 870-872; T. A. Busink, Der Tempel von Jerusalem (Leiden, 1970); P. L. Garber, "Reconstructing Solomon's Temple," BA 14 (1951), 2-24; J. Quellette, "Temple of Solomon," IDBS, pp. 872-874; A. Parrot, The Temple of Jerusalem (London, 1957); W. F. Stinespring, "Jerusalem Temple," IDB IV: 534-560; L.-H. Vincent and F.-M. Abel, Jerusalem Nouvelle (Paris, 1914-1926); Vincent and A.-M. Steve, Jerusalem de Ancien Testament (Paris, 1954, 1956); G. E. Wright, "Solomon's Temple Resurrected," BA 4 (1941), 17-31; "The Temple of Solomon," ibid., 7 (1944), 73-77.Top: Ground plan of the Temple building. Centre, left: East-west section. Centre, right: Cross-section through the sanctuary. Bottom: Side and front elevations -- Seventh-day Adventist Dictionary.